ISSN Print: 2381-1455  ISSN Online: 2381-1463
AASCIT Journal of Biology  
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Efficacy of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. on AEDES Larvae
AASCIT Journal of Biology
Vol.4 , No. 3, Publication Date: Dec. 21, 2018, Page: 47-52
356 Views Since December 21, 2018, 187 Downloads Since Dec. 21, 2018
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Jacqueline Azumi Badaki, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, Nigeria.

[2]    

Emmanuel Obu Ngwoke, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, Nigeria.

[3]    

idemi Benjamin Atteh, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, Nigeria.

 
Abstract
 

AedesAedes mosquitoes transmit diseases such as Yellow fever that had resulted in millions of human death. Outbreaks of Yellow fever has been encountered in a few states in Nigeria since December 2017. Synthetic commercial larvicides used in the control of the vector mosquitoes are non-biodegradable, resulting in negative environmental consequences. This has led to a shift to exploration of plant phyto-chemicals as better alternatives because of the advantage of being eco-friendly. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Euclyptus camaldulensis on Aedes larvae was investigated. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the plant extracts showed more presence of phytochemicals such as tannin, saponin, flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids in the ethanolic extracts than aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the plant recorded higher percentage of larvae mortality than the aqueous extracts. Ethanolic plant extracts also recorded very low LC50 and LC90 values unlike the aqueous extracts, indicating high larvae toxicity. The findings indicated that ethanolic plant extracts had very high lethal effect on Aedes larvae compared to their aqueous extracts. Although, the ethanolic extract of O. gratissimum alone was more potent than E. camaldulensis and their combined formulation [O.gratissimum: LC50 = 731ppm; E. camaldulensis: LC50 =773ppm; O. G+E. C: LC50 = 766ppm]. This infers that the performance of the ethanolic plant extracts did not improve when they were combined. The mortality of Aedes larvae was dose and time-dependent with increase in larvae mortality being directly proportional to time period of exposure of the larvae to the plant extracts. Further studies will be required to isolate the active ingredients responsible for the larvicidal effect in O. gratissimum.


Keywords
 

Eucalyptus Camaldulensis, Ocimum Gratissimum, Lethal Concentration, Aedes Larvae


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