ISSN Print: 2381-1250  ISSN Online: 2381-1269
AASCIT Journal of Bioscience  
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Essential Oil-Wax Formulations as an Easy to Use Clothing Impregnating Agent to Prevent Mosquito Bites from the Malaria Vector Anopheles
AASCIT Journal of Bioscience
Vol.5 , No. 1, Publication Date: Apr. 16, 2019, Page: 1-10
433 Views Since April 16, 2019, 166 Downloads Since Apr. 16, 2019
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Martin Singheiser, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

[2]    

Anna Scheeder, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

[3]    

Johanna Brecht, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

[4]    

Emilie Joëlle Njila Tchoufack, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

[5]    

Gabriele Pradel, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

[6]    

Che Julius Ngwa, Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

 
Abstract
 

Mosquitoes transmit a wide range of diseases including malaria, a major health problem in Africa. With the lack of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistant parasites against malaria, vector control remains the most effective means to reduce transmission of the disease. Mosquito repellents such as N,N-Diethyl-3methylbenzamide (DEET) have played significant roles in preventing malaria transmission. However, their use is being hampered by the emergence of resistant mosquitoes. Essential oil-based insect repellents have been shown to provide protection against mosquito bites. However, their high volatility makes them unstable and cannot provide protection over a long period of time. In the present study, in order to provide personal protection against mosquito bites, two different behavioral assays were employed to evaluate a cost effective, easy-to-use repellent agent through the impregnation of clothing with essential oils stabilized in waxes. Beeswax and Fjällräven wax were dissolved by heating at 70°C and different active essential oils were added at a final concentration of 2% or 5%. The formulations were used to impregnate clothing by ironing and tested for their repellent effect against laboratory reared Anopheles stephensi. The impregnated clothing did not improve the repellent effect after 20 mins of exposure to the mosquitoes. However, the number of mosquitoes with food ingestion after 18-24 h was significantly reduced compared to controls indicating that the formulations prevented mosquitoes from penetrating through the clothing in order to feed. Therefore, it is proposed that impregnating clothing with essential oil-wax formulations can provide protection against mosquito bites and thereby reduce the transmission of malaria.


Keywords
 

Mosquito, Repellent, Essential Oils, Waxes, Malaria, Transmission


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