ISSN Print: 2381-1153  ISSN Online: 2381-1161
American Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science  
Manuscript Information
Sodium Sulfate Production from Sulfidic Spent Caustic
American Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science
Vol.5 , No. 4, Publication Date: Sep. 20, 2018, Page: 77-84
1207 Views Since September 20, 2018, 829 Downloads Since Sep. 20, 2018

Seyed Reza Hashemi, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Amir Heidarinasab, Department of Chemical Engineering Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Sodium sulfate is produced from naturally occurring brine or crystalline mineral sources and as a product from various chemical processes. These processes for sodium sulfate production are all costly but for first time we would like to introduce a new chemical process from LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) process waste called sulfidic spent caustic, on the other hand spent caustic is known as one of the most hazardous waste, by using this method this waste from LPG Units can be considered as a valuable raw material in a very economical process to produce sodium sulfate with high quality confirmed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests. This process is not only inexpensive for producing a valuable industrial salt but also it comes from a waste that its treatment was very costly and difficult according to its refractory pollutant. The waste also could be treated much easier as a majority of sulfide Ions turn to sulfate.


Desulfurization, LPG Process, Sodium Sulfate, Spent Caustic, Neutralization


T. Temur, Ş. Avcılar, E. Özinan and M. Karakaya, Tüpraş, Kocaeli, Turkey,” Reduce LPG sulfur with a ‘rules of thumb’ checklist” © 2015 Gulf Publishing Company.


Alnaizy, R. (2008). Economic analysis for wet oxidation process for the treatment of mixed refinery spent caustic. Environmental progress, vol. 27, pp 297-351.


Graaff, M. Klok, J. Binmans, Muyzer, G. Janssen, A. (2012). Application of a 2-step process for the biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustic. Water research, vol. 46, pp. 723-730.


Mantzavinos, D., Sahibzada, M., Livingston, A. G, Metcalfe, I. S., and Hellgardt, K. “wastewater treatment: wet air oxidation as a precursor to biological treatment” catalysis Today, 53, 93-106 (1999


Kumfer, B., Flech, C. and Maugans, C. “Wet air oxidation treatment of spent caustic in petroleum refineries, “The National petroleum refineries association conference phoenix, AZ; March 21-23, (2010)


A. Gameel, G. Malash, A. A. Mubarak, M. Hussein.“Treatment of spent caustic from ethylene plant using Electro-Fenton technique” American Journal of environmental engineering and science. vol. 2, NO. 4, 2015, PP-37-46.


Vivek V. Ranade, Vinay M. Bhandari. “Industrial wastewater treatment, Recycling, and Reuse” IChem E, Advancing chemical engineering worldwide first published 2014 page no. 20.


PradyotPatnaik, PhD. “ Handbook of Inorganic Chemical” McGRAW-HILL, ISBN 0-07-049439-8 (2002). file:///C:/Users/Reza.H/Downloads/handbook-of-inorganic-chemicals.pdf


Wallace P. Bolen, John R. Dyni, “ Sodium Sulfate Statistical and information”, USGS. Science for a changing world. index.html


PoulHeiney, “XRD Basis “ Datasqueeze software Graphical Tools for X-ray Data Analysis. August. 9. 2017,


PeterBrouwer,“Theory of XRF “ Panalytical BV, The Netherlands Published 2010,


The US EPA; Hazardous waste management system, federal register 1995, 60, 57747.


Sodium Sulfate Chemical Economics Handbook Published November 2016.


Mineral commodity summaries 2012, U.S. Department of the interior KEN SALAZAR, secretary, U.S. Geological survey Marcia K. Mc Nutt, Director, U.S.G.S. Reston, Virginia: 2012.

  Join Us
  Join as Reviewer
  Join Editorial Board