ISSN: 2375-379X
Health Sciences Research  
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Assessing Facial Beauty of Sabah Ethnic Groups Using Farkas Principles
Health Sciences Research
Vol.3 , No. 1, Publication Date: Jan. 27, 2016, Page: 1-9
1730 Views Since January 27, 2016, 1069 Downloads Since Jan. 27, 2016

Aye Mya Thidar, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Daw Khin Saw Naing, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Tin Tin Myint, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


Zainal Arifin Mustapha, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.


The human face is a unique structure allowing each person to possess a distinctly recognizable facial identity. The face is formed through a complicated process of continual growth and remodelling till puberty. The face is the common element in defining beauty of individuals although the perception of beauty may vary among the beholders. Generally, the attractive faces are known to present with ideal facial proportions based on the divine or golden proportions of 1.618. Ancient Greeks had developed “Neoclassical Facial Canons” as a guide to assess facial beauty. In medical practice, the precise measurement of the head and face is important in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of operative outcomes for aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures. As such, Neoclassical Canons are used as a guidance in facial reconstructive and aesthetic surgical procedures. This study was conducted in the Northern districts of Borneo Island in which several ethnic groups of Sabah, Malaysia resides. The ethnic people of which Kadazan-Dusun forms the majority (17.8%) are known for their attractive faces. Although their facial characteristics are quite distinct and readily distinguishable, a few studies had attempted to assess their facial characteristics scientifically. This study measured the facial characteristics of Bajau, Sungai and Rungus (a descendent of Kadazan-Dusun) ethnic groups residing in eight geographical areas of Sabah and compared their vertical and horizontal facial ratios. Using Farkas facial Cannons, the beauty of the three ethnic groups were scientifically assessed. The results revealed that the upper portion of the face for both sexes was significantly longer among Rungus and the relative nose width was significantly greater among Bajau ethnic group. Naso-facial canon for Sungai females and orbital cannon for all ethnic groups regardless of gender follows the Farkas principles. Other facial proportions of all three ethnic groups deviate from Farkas definition of facial beauty.


Facial Beauty, Neoclassical Canons, Rungus, Sungai, Bajau


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