ISSN: 2375-3935
American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition  
Manuscript Information
 
 
Ethyl Carbamate in Burukutu Produced from Different Sorghum Varieties Under Varying Storage Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology
American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition
Vol.5 , No. 4, Publication Date: Oct. 9, 2018, Page: 82-88
372 Views Since October 9, 2018, 75 Downloads Since Oct. 9, 2018
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Igwe Victory Somtochukwu, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.

[2]    

Omeire Gloria Chinenyenwa, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.

[3]    

Chinaza Godswill Awuchi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria; Department of Physical Sciences, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda.

[4]    

Kwari Mercy Ibrahim, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

[5]    

Oledimma Ngozi Uchenna, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

[6]    

Amagwula Ikechukwu Otuosorochi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Nigeria.

 
Abstract
 

Burukutu was produced using three varieties of sorghum – CSR- 02, S- 17 and S- 44. The ethyl carbamate (EC) content of the burukutu was studied using Response Surface Methodology. A three-level three-factorial Box-Behnken experimental design was adopted to study the effects of storage conditions on the burukutu produced. The ethyl carbamate content was analyzed using standard methods and results obtained were analyzed statistically using the response surface approach. Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the effects of storage time, storage temperature and their interactions on the ethyl carbamate content of burukutu and thus the beverage variety type showed non-significant difference (p>0.05). When consumed in excess, ethyl carbamate has been implicated in various health complications, including gastroenteric hemorrhages, vomiting, cancer, among others. The EC contents of the beverage varieties ranged from 1.08µg/l to 8.50µg/l; which were within the safe limits set by USDA (125 µg/l) and Canada (150 µg/kg). The R2 obtained from the statistical analysis of burukutu were all higher than 0.75 (75%) which depicts that the model was best suggested or adequately fits the relationship between the variables under consideration.


Keywords
 

Burukutu, Ethyl Carbamate, Storage Conditions, Response Surface Methodology, Modeling


Reference
 
[01]    

Alais, C. and Linden, G. (2009). Food Biochemistry. Aspen Publishers Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Pp 140-143.

[02]    

Alexander, J., Auounsson, G., Bentford, D., and Cockburn, A. (2007). Ethyl carbamate and hydrocyanic acid in food and beverages. Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 551: 1-44.

[03]    

AOAC (1990). Official methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

[04]    

AOAC (2006). Official methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

[05]    

Aresta, M., Boscolo, M., Franco, D. W. (2001). Copper (II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 49 (6): 2819–2824.

[06]    

Awuchi, Chinaza G. (2017). Sugar Alcohols: Chemistry, Production, Health Concerns and Nutritional Importance of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Erythritol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research (IJAAR), 3 (2); 31 – 66. ISSN: 2488-9849.

[07]    

Aylott, R. I., McNeish, A. S., and Walker, D. A. (2000). Ethyl carbamate formation in grain-based spirits. Journal of Institute of Brewing. 93 (1): 382-388.

[08]    

Box, E. P., Hunter, J. and Hunter, G. 2005. Statistics for Experiments. New Jersey: John Willey and Sons, Inc.

[09]    

Butzke, C. E. and Beland, F. A. (2007). Ethyl carbamate preventative action manual. U.S Food and Drug Administration, Washington D. C, USA. Available at URL: http://Vm.cfsan.fda.gov/Afrf/ ecaction.html [Accessed February 2nd, 2015].

[10]    

Butzke, C. E. and Bisson, L. F. (2007). Ethyl carbamate preventative action manual. U.S Food and Drug Administration, Washington D. C, USA. Available at URL: http://Vm.cfsan.fda.gov/^frf/ecaction.html

[11]    

Dennis, M. J., Howarth, N., Key, P. E., Pointer, M., and Massey, R. C. (2008). Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. Food Additives and Contaminants. 6 (3): 383-389.

[12]    

Egbema, K. C., and Etuk, V. E. (2007). A kinetic study of Burukutu fermentation. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. 2 (7): 1193-1198.

[13]    

FAO/WHO, (2006). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. In: Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the sixty-fourth meeting of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Food Nutrition Paper. 82: 1-778.

[14]    

Filli, K. B., Nkama, V. S., Jideani, A. Z. and Abubakar, U. M. (2011). Application of response surface methodology for the study of the composition of extruded millet-cowpea mixtures for the manufacture of fura: A Nigerian food. African Journal of Food Science, 5 (17): 884-896.

[15]    

Ibrahim, J. S., and Ierve, I. A. (2013). Development of Equations for Estimating Energy Requirements in Processing Local Alcoholic Beverage (Burukutu) In Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA). 4 (3): 648-654.

[16]    

Igwe Victory Somtochukwu, Omeire Gloria Chinenyenwa, Awuchi Chinaza Godswill, Kwari Mercy Ibrahim, Oledimma Ngozi Uchenna, Amagwula Ikechukwu Otuosorochi. Effect of Storage Conditions on the Methanol Content of Burukutu Produced from Different Sorghum Varieties; A Response Surface Methodology Approach. American Journal of Food, Nutrition and Health. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 42-47.

[17]    

Iwouno, J. O., and Igwe, V. S. (2013). Prevalence of ethyl carbamate in spirits from different sources. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 4 (2): 25-28.

[18]    

JECFA, (2006). Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. In: Evaluation of certain food contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series 930. Sixty-fourth report of the JECFA. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_930_eng.pdf [Accessed on 2nd February, 2015].

[19]    

Kim, Y. K. L, Koh, E., Chung, H. J and Kwon, H. (2000). Determination of ethyl carbamate in some fermented Korean foods and beverages. Food additives and contaminants. 17: 469-475.

[20]    

Norman, F. H., Cherl-Ho, L. and Quintero-Ramirez, R. (2009). Fermented cereals; A global perspective. Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O) Bulletin No. 38.

[21]    

NTP, (2011). National Toxicology Program. Urethane Report on Carcinogens. National Toxicology Program 12th ed., pp. 1–3.

[22]    

Udeogu, E; Awuchi, C. G. (2016). Effect of Processing On Hemagglutinin Activity of Lectin Extracts from Selected Cereals and Legumes. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research (IJAAR), 2 (12); 24 – 59. ISSN: 2488-9849. http://ijaar.org/articles/Volume2-Number12/Sciences-Technology-Engineering/ijaar-ste-v2n11-nov16-p5.pdf

[23]    

Vallejo-Cordoba, B., Gonzalez-Cordoba, A. F. and Estrada-Montoya, M. C., (2004). Tequila Volatile characterization and ethyl ester determination by solid-phase micro extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Agricultural and food chemistry, 52: 67-5571.

[24]    

WHO (World Health Organization) (2004). Global Status report on Alcohol. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies, 1 (2): 3-4.





 
  Join Us
 
  Join as Reviewer
 
  Join Editorial Board
 
share:
 
 
Submission
 
 
Membership