ISSN Print: 2472-9477  ISSN Online: 2472-9493
International Journal of Energy Policy and Management  
Manuscript Information
 
 
Assessing the Potential for Energy from Waste Plants to Tackle Energy Poverty and Earn Carbon Credits for Nigeria
International Journal of Energy Policy and Management
Vol.4 , No. 2, Publication Date: Oct. 17, 2019, Page: 8-16
1224 Views Since October 17, 2019, 313 Downloads Since Oct. 17, 2019
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Emmanuel Ugochukwu Unaegbu, Climate Transformation and Energy Remediation Society (CLIMATTERS), Abuja, Nigeria;School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, United Kingdom.

[2]    

Keith Baker, School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, United Kingdom.

 
Abstract
 

A major challenge for Nigeria is poor energy access and limited energy mix; relying mostly on gas and hydro power plants. Energy from Waste could provide a bridge for this problem. Fuel needed to power these plants is abundant and in unsanitary dumpsites across major cities in the country. This paper brings to the fore the potential for using energy from waste as an option for reducing energy poverty in Nigeria. The analysis presented here is based on waste generation data for strategic cities of Abuja and Lagos. After removing sizeable recyclable fraction from solid waste, it is estimated that the residual waste in Abuja and Lagos can generate 54GWh/year and 475GWh/year respectively; sufficient to power over 11,000 and 94,000 homes; reducing emissions by as much as 324 million kgCO2e and 2,835 million kgCO2e; and earning carbon credits of $7 million and $113 million per years respectively. The additional supply of waste from neighbouring cities can further enhance electricity generation capacities and carbon credit earnings. This papers concludes that energy from waste plants can help Nigeria effectively deal with the menace of growing waste generation, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and earn carbon credits, and very importantly improve her energy mix.


Keywords
 

Energy From Waste, Electricity, Energy Policy, Solid Waste Management, Carbon Credits, Nigeria


Reference
 
[01]    

International Energy Agency (2017). World energy outlook: executive summary. Paris, International Energy Agency. Online at: https://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/weo2017SUM.pdf {accessed: February 12, 2019].

[02]    

Nigeria Electric Supply Industry (2015). Nigeria power baseline report. {online}: https://mypower.ng/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Baseline-Report.pdf [Accessed: September 27, 2018].

[03]    

Sovacool, B. K. and Drupady, I. M. (2012). Energy access, poverty, and development: The Governance of Small-Scale Renewable Energy in Developing Asia. New York, Ashgate.

[04]    

Castellano, A., Kendall, A., Nikomarov, M., Swemmer, T. (2015). Brighter Africa: the growth potential of the Sub-Saharan electricity sector. McKinsey Report, https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/dotcom/client_service/EPNG/PDFs/Brighter_Africa-The_growth_potential_of_the_sub-Saharan_electricity_sector.ashx.

[05]    

Robinson, M. (2015). The role of sustainable energy in ending poverty and advancing climate justice. Keynote speech at the International Energy Agency: Inaugural Big Ideas Seminar, Paris.

[06]    

Baker, K., Mould, R., and Restrick, S. (2018). Rethink fuel poverty as a complex problem, Nature Energy, 3, 610–612.

[07]    

Boardman, B. (1991). From cold homes to affordable warmth, Belhaven Press, London, New York.

[08]    

National Population commission (2018), Nigerian population estimate 2017.

[09]    

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2012). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision; Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by Major Area, Region and Country, 1950-2050.

[10]    

World Energy Council (2013a), World energy resources: 2013 survey. London, World Energy Council.

[11]    

Nnaji, C. C. (2015). Status of municipal solid waste generation and disposal in Nigeria. Management of Environmental Quality International Journal, 26 (1), 53-71.

[12]    

Bichi, M. H. and Amatobi, D. A. (2013). Characterization of household solid waste generated in Sabon-Gari area of Kano in northern Nigeria. American Journal of Research Communication, 1 (4), 165-171.

[13]    

Hoornweg, D. and Bhada-Tata, P. (2012). What a Waste: A global review of solid waste management. Urban development series knowledge papers no. 15. Washington Dc, World Bank https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/17388 [Accessed: August 26, 2017].

[14]    

Solomon, U. U. (2009). The state of solid waste management in Nigeria. Waste Management, 29 (10), 2787-2788.

[15]    

Ogwueleka, T. (2009). Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 6 (3), 173-180.

[16]    

Federal Ministry of Environment (2004). Integrated waste management facility study for Abuja.

[17]    

Somorin, T. O., Adesola, S. and Kolawole, A. (2017). State-level assessment of the waste-to-energy potential (via incineration) of municipal solid wastes in Nigeria. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 804-815.

[18]    

Cogut, A. (2016). Open burning of waste: A global health disaster. R20 region of climate action. https://regions20.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/OPEN-BURNING-OF-WASTE-A-GLOBAL-HEALTH-DISASTER_R20-Research-Paper_Final_29.05.2017.pdf [Accessed: October 10, 2018].

[19]    

Marcel van Berlo, M. A. J. and de Waart, H. (2008). Unleashing the power of waste: Comparison of greenhouse gas and other performance indicators for waste-to-energy concepts and landfilling. 16th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, 16, 181-196.

[20]    

Niger Power Review (1989). Development of the electricity industry in Nigeria (1960-1989). 10-15.

[21]    

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2016). UK energy statistics, 2015 & Q4 2015; Statistical press release. London, DECC {online}: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/513244/Press_Notice_March_2016.pdf [Accessed: December 27, 2016].

[22]    

National Planning Commission (2009). Nigeria Vision 20: 2020-economic transformation blueprint.

[23]    

CBO Capital (2014). Nigerian power sector white paper: Nigeria sparks. Lagos, CBO Capital: http://www.cbocapital.com [Accessed: December 27, 2016].

[24]    

Power Africa Initiative (2015). What Power Africa means for Nigeria. Power Africa, Nigeria {online} https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Nigeria%20Country%20Fact%20Sheet_05_04_15.pdf [Accessed: December 27, 2016].

[25]    

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (2016). Nigeria proven gas reserve.

[26]    

Amadi, S. (2015). From megawatts to actual delivery: bottlenecks and solutions. Abuja, National Electricity Regulatory Commission.

[27]    

World Bank (2015), Access to electricity (% of population), {online}: https://www.data.worldbank.org/indicators [Accessed: December 26, 2016].

[28]    

Okoro, O. I. and Madueme, T.C. (2004). Solar energy investments in a developing economy. Renewable Energy, 29, 1599-1610

[29]    

Word Bank (2017). Electric power consumption; kWh per capita. Online at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC [February 12, 2019].

[30]    

Awosope, C. A. (2014). Nigeria electricity industry: issues, challenges and solutions, Covenant University 38th Public Lecture, Public Lecture Series, 3 (2).

[31]    

UNEP (2011). Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Nairobi, UNEP. {online}: http://web.unep.org/greeneconomy/sites/unep.org.greeneconomy/files/field/image/green_economyreport_final_dec2011.pdf [Accessed: December 28, 2016].

[32]    

Unaegbu, E. (2016). Poor waste management as Nigeria’s bane to achieving sustainable development goals, The Guardian Newspaper, http://guardian.ng/features/youthspeak/poor-waste-management-as-nigerias-bane-to-achieving-sustainable-development-goals/ [Accessed: December 10, 2018].

[33]    

Adewole, A. T. (2009). Waste management towards sustainable development in Nigeria: a case study of Lagos state. International NGO Journal, 4 (4): 173-179.

[34]    

Ayuba, K. A., Manaf, L., Abdullah, H. S. and Azmin, S. (2013). Current status of municipal solid waste management practise in FCT Abuja, Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 5 (6): 295-304.

[35]    

Nwosu, C, Omokhudu, G. and Tukur, A. (2016). An assessment of open dumps and landfill management in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria-using Scotland as a case study for structural development. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 6 (7), 78-91.

[36]    

Ekpete, B. O. and Michael-Agwuoke, M. U. (2014). Implementing ‘greenwaste’ management in a sustainable city of Lagos, Nigeria. FIG Congress 2014, Engaging the Challenges – Enhancing the Relevance. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

[37]    

Imam, A., Mohammed, B., Wilson, D. C. and Cheeseman, C. R (2008). Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria. Waste Management, 28, 468–472.

[38]    

Oriola, E. O. (1994). Strategies for combating urban flooding in a developing nation: a case study from Ondo. The Environmentalist, 14, 57–62.

[39]    

UNEP (2008). Green Jobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable. Nairobi, UNEP.

[40]    

Worrell, W. A and Vesilind, P. A. (2012). Solid waste engineering (second ediition). USA, Cengage Learning.

[41]    

Avfall Sverige (2016). Swedish waste management 2016 {online} http://www.avfallsverige.se/fileadmin/uploads/Arbete/Remissvar/swm_2016.pdf [Accessed: December 29, 2016].

[42]    

Hartenstein, H. and Licata, A. (2000). Modern technologies to reduce emissions of dioxins and furans from waste incineration. 8th, Annual North American waste-to-energy conference, 93-132.

[43]    

World Energy Council (2013b), World energy resources: Waste to energy. London, World Energy Council. {online}: https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/WER_2013_7b_Waste_to_Energy.pdf [Accessed: December 29, 2016].

[44]    

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2014). Energy from waste: A Guide to the debate (revised edition). London, DEFRA, {online} https:/ /www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/284612/pb14130-energy-waste-201402.pdf [Accessed: December 29, 2016].

[45]    

AEB Amsterdam (2015). For a clean society, {online}: http://www.aebamsterdam.com/media/1552/aeb-corporatebrochure-en-screen.pdf [Accessed: December 31, 2016].

[46]    

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2004). Review of environmental and health effects of waste management: Municipal solid wastes and similar wastes. London, DEFRA {online}: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69391/pb9052a-health-report-040325.pdf [Accessed: December 27, 2016].

[47]    

Marcel van Berlo, M. A. J. (2007). Unleashing the power of waste: A great potential that should not be wasted. International Solid Waste Association BEACON conference.

[48]    

Ecoprog (2015). Waste to Energy 2015/2016: Technologies, plants, projects, players and backgrounds of the global thermal waste treatment business. Cologne, Ecoprog {online}: http://www.ecoprog.com/fileadmin/user_upload/leseproben/ext_market_report_WtE_2015-20-2016_ecoprog.pdf [Accessed: December 31, 2016].

[49]    

Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea (2009). Comprehensive master plan for waste-to-energy.

[50]    

Babcock & Wilcox Vølund (2017). Shenzhen east waste-to-energy power plant: project case history. Denmark, The Babcock & Wilcox Company.

[51]    

Abur, B. T., Oguche, E. E. and Duvuna, D. A (2014). Characterization of municipal solid waste in the federal capital Abuja, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 14 (2-1.0), 1-6.

[52]    

Amoo, L. and Fagbenle, R. O. {2013). Renewable municipal solid waste pathways for energy generation and sustainable development in the Nigerian context, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering 4 (1): 42.

[53]    

Akhator, E. P.; Obanor, A. I. and Ezemonye, L. I. (2016). Electricity Generation in Nigeria from Municipal Solid Waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model, Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 20 (3) 635-643.

[54]    

Anestina, A. I., Adetola, A., Odafe, I. B., (2014). Performance Assessment of solid waste management following private partnership operations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Waste Management, 868072.

[55]    

Amber, I. Kulla, D. M. and Gukop, N (2012). Generation, characteristics and energy potential of solid municipal solid waste in Nigeria. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa 23 (3): 47-51.

[56]    

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (2017). Report of the high-level commission on carbon prices. The World Bank, Washington DC.

[57]    

Ryu, C. (2010). Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60 (2), 176–183.

[58]    

Tan, S. T, Hashim, H., Lim, J. S, Ho, W. S, Lee, C. T. and J. Yan (2014). Energy and emissions benefits of renewable energy derived from municipal solid waste: analysis of a low carbon scenario in Malaysia. Applied Energy, 136, 797–804.

[59]    

Greenwood, C. (2009), Green investing: Towards a clean energy infrastructure, USA, World Economic Forum.

[60]    

West African Forum for Clean Energy Financing (WAFCEF) – 2 (2014). Call for business proposals (renewable energy & energy efficiency).

[61]    

World Energy Council (2013c), World energy perspective: Cost of energy technologies. London, World Energy Council {online}: https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/WEC_J1143_CostofTECHNOLOGIES_021013_WEB_Final.pdf [Accessed: January 5, 2017].

[62]    

Sachs, D. J., McArthur, J. W., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kruk, M., Bahadur, C., Faye, M. and McCord G. (2004). Ending Africa’s poverty trap. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 35 (1), 117-240.





 
  Join Us
 
  Join as Reviewer
 
  Join Editorial Board
 
share:
 
 
Submission
 
 
Membership